Tonality has been the cornerstone of Western music-theoretical discourse for centuries. This study addresses the subject, using traditional music analysis, data-driven corpus methods, and computational models, concentrating on historical changes of tonality with a particular focus on the 19th century. The thesis engages three analytical levels of increasing scope - micro, meso, and macro - and is thus located between the poles of the particular and the general. The micro-level illustrates compositional innovations testifying to the radical changes in tonality within the 19th century. The meso-level examines a corpus of harmonic annotations of pieces by Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, Liszt, Dvořák, Grieg, Tchaikovsky, Debussy, and Medtner, containing over 75,000 chord symbols. It presents a comprehensive model for the analysis of chord symbols in large corpora in order to study chords and the progressions between them. The macro-level explores a corpus of nearly 3 million notes in more than 2000 pieces created by 75 composers, comprising a historical range of approximately 600 years. The encoding of the data distinguishes enharmonically equivalent notes, hence providing a larger note vocabulary than most previous approaches in empirical music research. The diverse methodology in this study provides quantitatively grounded insights from a range of perspectives, bridging the fields of music theory, computational musicology, mathematical modeling, and the digital humanities.